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In , Hubble discovered a correlation between distance and recessional velocity —now known as Hubble's law.
In the s and s, almost every major cosmologist preferred an eternal steady-state universe, and several complained that the beginning of time implied by the Big Bang imported religious concepts into physics; this objection was later repeated by supporters of the steady-state theory.
A beginning in time was "repugnant" to him. If the world has begun with a single quantum , the notions of space and time would altogether fail to have any meaning at the beginning; they would only begin to have a sensible meaning when the original quantum had been divided into a sufficient number of quanta.
If this suggestion is correct, the beginning of the world happened a little before the beginning of space and time. During the s, other ideas were proposed as non-standard cosmologies to explain Hubble's observations, including the Milne model ,  the oscillatory universe originally suggested by Friedmann, but advocated by Albert Einstein and Richard C.
Tolman  and Fritz Zwicky 's tired light hypothesis. After World War II , two distinct possibilities emerged. One was Fred Hoyle's steady-state model, whereby new matter would be created as the universe seemed to expand.
In this model the universe is roughly the same at any point in time. Eventually, the observational evidence, most notably from radio source counts , began to favor Big Bang over steady state.
The discovery and confirmation of the CMB in secured the Big Bang as the best theory of the origin and evolution of the universe. Ellis published papers where they showed that mathematical singularities were an inevitable initial condition of relativistic models of the Big Bang.
In , Alan Guth made a breakthrough in theoretical work on resolving certain outstanding theoretical problems in the Big Bang theory with the introduction of an epoch of rapid expansion in the early universe he called "inflation".
This issue was later resolved when new computer simulations, which included the effects of mass loss due to stellar winds , indicated a much younger age for globular clusters.
Lawrence Krauss . The earliest and most direct observational evidence of the validity of the theory are the expansion of the universe according to Hubble's law as indicated by the redshifts of galaxies , discovery and measurement of the cosmic microwave background and the relative abundances of light elements produced by Big Bang nucleosynthesis BBN.
More recent evidence includes observations of galaxy formation and evolution , and the distribution of large-scale cosmic structures ,  These are sometimes called the "four pillars" of the Big Bang theory.
Precise modern models of the Big Bang appeal to various exotic physical phenomena that have not been observed in terrestrial laboratory experiments or incorporated into the Standard Model of particle physics.
Of these features, dark matter is currently the subject of most active laboratory investigations. Dark energy is also an area of intense interest for scientists, but it is not clear whether direct detection of dark energy will be possible.
Viable, quantitative explanations for such phenomena are still being sought. These are currently unsolved problems in physics.
Observations of distant galaxies and quasars show that these objects are redshifted: the light emitted from them has been shifted to longer wavelengths.
This can be seen by taking a frequency spectrum of an object and matching the spectroscopic pattern of emission or absorption lines corresponding to atoms of the chemical elements interacting with the light.
These redshifts are uniformly isotropic, distributed evenly among the observed objects in all directions.
If the redshift is interpreted as a Doppler shift, the recessional velocity of the object can be calculated. For some galaxies, it is possible to estimate distances via the cosmic distance ladder.
Hubble's law has two possible explanations. Either we are at the center of an explosion of galaxies—which is untenable under the assumption of the Copernican principle—or the universe is uniformly expanding everywhere.
However, the redshift is not a true Doppler shift, but rather the result of the expansion of the universe between the time the light was emitted and the time that it was detected.
That space is undergoing metric expansion is shown by direct observational evidence of the cosmological principle and the Copernican principle, which together with Hubble's law have no other explanation.
Astronomical redshifts are extremely isotropic and homogeneous ,  supporting the cosmological principle that the universe looks the same in all directions, along with much other evidence.
If the redshifts were the result of an explosion from a center distant from us, they would not be so similar in different directions.
Measurements of the effects of the cosmic microwave background radiation on the dynamics of distant astrophysical systems in proved the Copernican principle, that, on a cosmological scale, the Earth is not in a central position.
Uniform cooling of the CMB over billions of years is explainable only if the universe is experiencing a metric expansion, and excludes the possibility that we are near the unique center of an explosion.
In , Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson serendipitously discovered the cosmic background radiation, an omnidirectional signal in the microwave band.
Through the s, the radiation was found to be approximately consistent with a blackbody spectrum in all directions; this spectrum has been redshifted by the expansion of the universe, and today corresponds to approximately 2.
This tipped the balance of evidence in favor of the Big Bang model, and Penzias and Wilson were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.
The surface of last scattering corresponding to emission of the CMB occurs shortly after recombination , the epoch when neutral hydrogen becomes stable.
Prior to this, the universe comprised a hot dense photon-baryon plasma sea where photons were quickly scattered from free charged particles.
In , NASA launched COBE, which made two major advances: in , high-precision spectrum measurements showed that the CMB frequency spectrum is an almost perfect blackbody with no deviations at a level of 1 part in 10 4 , and measured a residual temperature of 2.
Mather and George Smoot were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their leadership in these results. During the following decade, CMB anisotropies were further investigated by a large number of ground-based and balloon experiments.
In —, several experiments, most notably BOOMERanG , found the shape of the universe to be spatially almost flat by measuring the typical angular size the size on the sky of the anisotropies.
In early , the first results of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe were released, yielding what were at the time the most accurate values for some of the cosmological parameters.
The results disproved several specific cosmic inflation models, but are consistent with the inflation theory in general. Other ground and balloon based cosmic microwave background experiments are ongoing.
Using the Big Bang model, it is possible to calculate the concentration of helium-4 , helium-3 , deuterium, and lithium-7 in the universe as ratios to the amount of ordinary hydrogen.
This value can be calculated independently from the detailed structure of CMB fluctuations. The ratios predicted by mass, not by number are about 0.
The measured abundances all agree at least roughly with those predicted from a single value of the baryon-to-photon ratio. Detailed observations of the morphology and distribution of galaxies and quasars are in agreement with the current state of the Big Bang theory.
A combination of observations and theory suggest that the first quasars and galaxies formed about a billion years after the Big Bang, and since then, larger structures have been forming, such as galaxy clusters and superclusters.
Populations of stars have been aging and evolving, so that distant galaxies which are observed as they were in the early universe appear very different from nearby galaxies observed in a more recent state.
Moreover, galaxies that formed relatively recently, appear markedly different from galaxies formed at similar distances but shortly after the Big Bang.
These observations are strong arguments against the steady-state model. Observations of star formation, galaxy and quasar distributions and larger structures, agree well with Big Bang simulations of the formation of structure in the universe, and are helping to complete details of the theory.
In , astronomers found what they believe to be pristine clouds of primordial gas by analyzing absorption lines in the spectra of distant quasars.
Before this discovery, all other astronomical objects have been observed to contain heavy elements that are formed in stars.
These two clouds of gas contain no elements heavier than hydrogen and deuterium. The age of the universe as estimated from the Hubble expansion and the CMB is now in good agreement with other estimates using the ages of the oldest stars, both as measured by applying the theory of stellar evolution to globular clusters and through radiometric dating of individual Population II stars.
The prediction that the CMB temperature was higher in the past has been experimentally supported by observations of very low temperature absorption lines in gas clouds at high redshift.
Observations have found this to be roughly true, but this effect depends on cluster properties that do change with cosmic time, making precise measurements difficult.
Future gravitational-wave observatories might be able to detect primordial gravitational waves , relics of the early universe, up to less than a second after the Big Bang.
As with any theory, a number of mysteries and problems have arisen as a result of the development of the Big Bang theory.
Some of these mysteries and problems have been resolved while others are still outstanding. Proposed solutions to some of the problems in the Big Bang model have revealed new mysteries of their own.
For example, the horizon problem , the magnetic monopole problem , and the flatness problem are most commonly resolved with inflationary theory, but the details of the inflationary universe are still left unresolved and many, including some founders of the theory, say it has been disproven.
It is not yet understood why the universe has more matter than antimatter. However, observations suggest that the universe, including its most distant parts, is made almost entirely of matter.
A process called baryogenesis was hypothesized to account for the asymmetry. For baryogenesis to occur, the Sakharov conditions must be satisfied.
These require that baryon number is not conserved, that C-symmetry and CP-symmetry are violated and that the universe depart from thermodynamic equilibrium.
Measurements of the redshift— magnitude relation for type Ia supernovae indicate that the expansion of the universe has been accelerating since the universe was about half its present age.
To explain this acceleration, general relativity requires that much of the energy in the universe consists of a component with large negative pressure, dubbed "dark energy".
Dark energy, though speculative, solves numerous problems. Dark energy also helps to explain two geometrical measures of the overall curvature of the universe, one using the frequency of gravitational lenses , and the other using the characteristic pattern of the large-scale structure as a cosmic ruler.
Negative pressure is believed to be a property of vacuum energy , but the exact nature and existence of dark energy remains one of the great mysteries of the Big Bang.
Therefore, matter made up a larger fraction of the total energy of the universe in the past than it does today, but its fractional contribution will fall in the far future as dark energy becomes even more dominant.
The dark energy component of the universe has been explained by theorists using a variety of competing theories including Einstein's cosmological constant but also extending to more exotic forms of quintessence or other modified gravity schemes.
During the s and the s, various observations showed that there is not sufficient visible matter in the universe to account for the apparent strength of gravitational forces within and between galaxies.
In addition, the assumption that the universe is mostly normal matter led to predictions that were strongly inconsistent with observations.
In particular, the universe today is far more lumpy and contains far less deuterium than can be accounted for without dark matter.
While dark matter has always been controversial, it is inferred by various observations: the anisotropies in the CMB, galaxy cluster velocity dispersions, large-scale structure distributions, gravitational lensing studies, and X-ray measurements of galaxy clusters.
Indirect evidence for dark matter comes from its gravitational influence on other matter, as no dark matter particles have been observed in laboratories.
Many particle physics candidates for dark matter have been proposed, and several projects to detect them directly are underway.
Additionally, there are outstanding problems associated with the currently favored cold dark matter model which include the dwarf galaxy problem  and the cuspy halo problem.
The horizon problem results from the premise that information cannot travel faster than light. In a universe of finite age this sets a limit—the particle horizon—on the separation of any two regions of space that are in causal contact.
There would then be no mechanism to cause wider regions to have the same temperature. A resolution to this apparent inconsistency is offered by inflationary theory in which a homogeneous and isotropic scalar energy field dominates the universe at some very early period before baryogenesis.
During inflation, the universe undergoes exponential expansion, and the particle horizon expands much more rapidly than previously assumed, so that regions presently on opposite sides of the observable universe are well inside each other's particle horizon.
The observed isotropy of the CMB then follows from the fact that this larger region was in causal contact before the beginning of inflation.
Heisenberg's uncertainty principle predicts that during the inflationary phase there would be quantum thermal fluctuations , which would be magnified to a cosmic scale.
These fluctuations served as the seeds for all the current structures in the universe. If inflation occurred, exponential expansion would push large regions of space well beyond our observable horizon.
A related issue to the classic horizon problem arises because in most standard cosmological inflation models, inflation ceases well before electroweak symmetry breaking occurs, so inflation should not be able to prevent large-scale discontinuities in the electroweak vacuum since distant parts of the observable universe were causally separate when the electroweak epoch ended.
The magnetic monopole objection was raised in the late s. Grand Unified theories GUTs predicted topological defects in space that would manifest as magnetic monopoles.
These objects would be produced efficiently in the hot early universe, resulting in a density much higher than is consistent with observations, given that no monopoles have been found.
This problem is resolved by cosmic inflation, which removes all point defects from the observable universe, in the same way that it drives the geometry to flatness.
The flatness problem also known as the oldness problem is an observational problem associated with a FLRW. Curvature is negative if its density is less than the critical density; positive if greater; and zero at the critical density, in which case space is said to be flat.
Observations indicate the universe is consistent with being flat. The problem is that any small departure from the critical density grows with time, and yet the universe today remains very close to flat.
For instance, even at the relatively late age of a few minutes the time of nucleosynthesis , the density of the universe must have been within one part in 10 14 of its critical value, or it would not exist as it does today.
Before observations of dark energy, cosmologists considered two scenarios for the future of the universe. If the mass density of the universe were greater than the critical density, then the universe would reach a maximum size and then begin to collapse.
It would become denser and hotter again, ending with a state similar to that in which it started—a Big Crunch.
Alternatively, if the density in the universe were equal to or below the critical density, the expansion would slow down but never stop.
Star formation would cease with the consumption of interstellar gas in each galaxy; stars would burn out, leaving white dwarfs , neutron stars , and black holes.
Collisions between these would result in mass accumulating into larger and larger black holes. The average temperature of the universe would very gradually asymptotically approach absolute zero —a Big Freeze.
Eventually, black holes would evaporate by emitting Hawking radiation. The entropy of the universe would increase to the point where no organized form of energy could be extracted from it, a scenario known as heat death.
Modern observations of accelerating expansion imply that more and more of the currently visible universe will pass beyond our event horizon and out of contact with us.
The eventual result is not known. This theory suggests that only gravitationally bound systems, such as galaxies, will remain together, and they too will be subject to heat death as the universe expands and cools.
Other explanations of dark energy, called phantom energy theories, suggest that ultimately galaxy clusters, stars, planets, atoms, nuclei, and matter itself will be torn apart by the ever-increasing expansion in a so-called Big Rip.
One of the common misconceptions about the Big Bang model is that it fully explains the origin of the universe. However, the Big Bang model does not describe how energy, time, and space were caused, but rather it describes the emergence of the present universe from an ultra-dense and high-temperature initial state.
When the size of the universe at Big Bang is described, it refers to the size of the observable universe, and not the entire universe. Hubble's law predicts that galaxies that are beyond Hubble distance recede faster than the speed of light.
However, special relativity does not apply beyond motion through space. Hubble's law describes velocity that results from expansion of space, rather than through space.
Astronomers often refer to the cosmological redshift as a Doppler shift which can lead to a misconception. Accurate derivation of the cosmological redshift requires the use of general relativity, and while a treatment using simpler Doppler effect arguments gives nearly identical results for nearby galaxies, interpreting the redshift of more distant galaxies as due to the simplest Doppler redshift treatments can cause confusion.
The Big Bang explains the evolution of the universe from a density and temperature that is well beyond humanity's capability to replicate, so extrapolations to most extreme conditions and earliest times are necessarily more speculative.
How the initial state of the universe originated is still an open question, but the Big Bang model does constrain some of its characteristics.
For example, specific laws of nature most likely came to existence in a random way, but as inflation models show, some combinations of these are far more probable.
The Big Bang theory, built upon the equations of classical general relativity, indicates a singularity at the origin of cosmic time, and such an infinite energy density may be a physical impossibility.
However, the physical theories of general relativity and quantum mechanics as currently realized are not applicable before the Planck epoch, and correcting this will require the development of a correct treatment of quantum gravity.
While it is not known what could have preceded the hot dense state of the early universe or how and why it originated, or even whether such questions are sensible, speculation abounds as the subject of "cosmogony".
Proposals in the last two categories see the Big Bang as an event in either a much larger and older universe or in a multiverse.
As a description of the origin of the universe, the Big Bang has significant bearing on religion and philosophy.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cosmological model. Early universe. Subject history. International Websites.
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